ANTH > Blogs > Endocrine Disorders & Infectious Diseases


What is Endocrine Disorder?

Endocrine disorders occur when hormone production in the body is disrupted. It results in an improper function of the endocrine system, which includes the glands that make hormones, the receptors that respond to them, and the organs that are directly impacted by these hormones.

Types of Endocrine Disorders

At any one of these points, dysfunction can occur and cause wide-ranging effects on the body. Some of the most common types of endocrine disorders include; Menopause, Diabetes, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s disease, Graves’ disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Hyperthyroidism, Prolactinoma, Cancers of the Endocrine Glands.

Hormone Imbalance

It is a condition when a gland produces too much or too little of a hormone. It can be caused when the endocrine feedback system, whose prime job is to keep hormones in the body perfectly balanced, doesn’t function properly. When it gets malfunctioned, it causes an imbalance in the production of the hormone. One of the few major reasons for hormone imbalance is a genetic order, infection, or disease, and an injury to an endocrine gland.

Diagnosis & Treatment

The endocrine disorder is difficult to diagnose due to its interconnected structured patterns, which involve several bodily functions, like growth, metabolism, and reproduction. This disorder can be diagnosed with these tests; Urinalysis, Blood Testing, Fine Needle Aspiration, Ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI Scan & (and PET) Scan. Medications, Chemotherapy/Radiation Therapy, and Surgical Intervention are often used to treat endocrine disorders.


Understand Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are illnesses that are caused when harmful pathogens get into your body from any outside source. Pathogens that are responsible for causing infectious diseases are Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites & Prions (rare). Infectious diseases can also be contracted from other people, bug bites, and contaminated food, water, or soil.

Types of Infectious Diseases

Viral Infections, Bacterial Infections, Fungal Infections, Parasitic Infections, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) or Prion Diseases are the most common types of infectious diseases.

Complications of Infectious Diseases

Serious & life-threatening complications of various infectious diseases include; Dehydration, Pneumonia, Sepsis, Meningitis (Swelling of the Brain), AIDS, Liver Cancer, and Cervical Cancer.

Treatment for Infectious Diseases

It all depends upon the causes and nature of the infection. Most bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, depending on the bacteria causing the infection. Whereas most of viral infections can also be managed with over-the-counter medicines. It is to be noted that certain viral infections have special medications for their treatment.

Antifungal medications are used for treating fungal infections. They come in oral form or you may apply them on your skin where the fungus lies. Similarly, antiparasitic drugs are used for the treatment of parasites. On the other end, there is no treatment for prion diseases.

What is Antimicrobial Resistance?

When bacteria start developing mutations, antimicrobial resistance occurs which makes it harder for medicines to destroy those mutations. The cause of AMR is the overuse of antibiotics for minor infections, especially when your immune system already has this ability to fight off on its own.

Because of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), some bacterial infections become difficult to treat and are more likely to be life-threatening. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is the prime example of a bacterial infection that has become antibiotic-resistant.

Professor Dr. Rizwan Aziz QaziPROF DR RIZWAN AZIZ QAZI

With 38-year experience in practicing healthcare, Professor Dr. Rizwan Aziz Qazi is a renowned Medical Specialist in Islamabad & Rawalpindi who is widely known for having his expertise in Internal Medicine, Hematology, Hepatology, Endocrine Disorders, Gastroenterology, and Infectious Diseases.

Having served in many international & local hospitals, Professor Dr. Rizwan Aziz Qazi has vast experience in addressing treatments, consultations, pre-operation preparations, and the required procedures for patients & caregivers. He joined Dr. Akbar Niazi Teaching Hospital (ANTH) in 2018 after retiring from PIMS where he served as Head of the Medicine Department.

Besides Dr. Akbar Niazi Teaching Hospital, Professor Dr. Rizwan Aziz Qazi now also provides consultation at ANTH’s newly established Executive Clinics at G-8 Markaz, Islamabad.

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